By H. Vincent Poor
Crucial history studying for engineers and scientists operating in such fields as communications, keep watch over, sign, and picture processing, radar and sonar, radio astronomy, seismology, distant sensing, and instrumentation. The ebook can be utilized as a textbook for a unmarried direction, in addition to a mixture of an introductory and a sophisticated direction, or maybe for 2 separate classes, one in sign detection, the opposite in estimation.
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Additional resources for An introduction to signal detection and estimation
3. 4. 5. Metal etching Si02 deposition (liner) FSG deposition Si02 deposition (cap) CMP Between Si02 cap deposition and CMP, a sacrificial layer can be deposited. Clearly, this process flow increases the costs and the dielectric constant as compared to single-layer 28 LOW DIELECTRIC CONSTANT MATERIALS FOR INTERLAYER DIELECTRICS Structures. The liner must have very good gap-fill abilities, and HDP is probably the best choice. The cap can be made of silicon-rich oxide that is stable against moisture attack, but also leads to a higher dielectric constant.
19. Increase of water absorption with increasingfluorinecontent . 1000 2000 3000 4000 Wavenumber [cm'^] Fig. 20. FTIR spectra of FSG films as deposited and after 2 weeks exposure to environmental air. hydrogen in the process, which means that no silanol, which is well known as a water adsorption site, can be formed. The only uptake of water that we could observe in HDPCVD FSG films was after the sample spent 2 weeks in deionized water (Fig. 20), and after these 2 weeks, we saw only a small amount of water.
The introduction of polymers as IMD materials affords the investigation of a lot more properties than the dielectric constant. It must be considered that polymers exhibit (in general) lower Young's moduli, lower thermal conductivity, lower thermal stability, and higher coefficients of thermal expansion. The anisotropic thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of some of the polymers cause additional problems. The adhesion of the polymer layer to underlying and cap layers is a severe problem, especially for fluorocarbon polymers.
An introduction to signal detection and estimation by H. Vincent Poor