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By Slater J.C.

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Generally, the PFC techniques can be classified as passive or active. 1 Passive PFC Techniques In passive PFC techniques, passive LC filters are connected at the input of a rectifier. The filter prevents injection of harmonics from the rectifier to the AC line. Passive filters have high efficiency and low cost. Passive techniques are simple and robust; hence, they are very reliable. Yet, the inductor and capacitor are bulky and heavy, which limits their applications as a single solution only in low-power ratings.

There are two techniques for improving the performance of UPS systems: passive and active. The passive technique uses filters for the harmonics in order to prevent them from flowing into the AC line. This is a good technique for low-power cost-sensitive applications. For higher-power applications, active PFC techniques are used. In these techniques, either a PWM rectifier is utilized [52, 53] or an additional DC/DC PFC circuit is used [54, 55]. Basically, this is a DC/DC circuit that is controlled in such a way that it forces the rectifier to draw a sinusoidal current from the AC line, which is in phase with the input voltage.

Here, N separate units continuously supply the load, and one additional unit remains in reserve. If one of the N operating units fails, it is turned off and the reserved unit starts operating instead. The failed unit can be repaired or replaced while the whole system continues to work. The parallel UPS systems are also very flexible toward an expansion of the load. The capacity of the UPS can easily improve by simply adding additional modules. 1 Configurations A typical on-line UPS consists of an AC/DC rectifier, a battery bank, and a DC/AC inverter.

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Action of Radiation and Perturbations on Atoms by Slater J.C.

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