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Sample text

However, Eck pointed out that neither was there any mention of purgatory, or of several sacraments, or even of a Pope – yet surely Luther did not deny the authority of these things as well? To Eck’s astonishment, Luther did indeed reject all of these things too. Luther had already developed the idea that entry into heaven could only be through sola fide (faith alone). Now, he developed his second revolutionary idea: that the way of searching for that faith was through sola scriptura (scripture alone).

The great nineteenth-century German historian, Leopold von Ranke, established the Lutheran Reformation as a decisive step towards the creation of the German nation state which eventually became a political reality in 1871. In his view, the Reformation was a struggle by the German people to cast off the control of a corrupt foreign power – the papacy – and to pursue their own purified version of Christianity. Ranke’s view has since been developed and challenged in a number of respects. For example, the Marxist historian Max Steinmetz shared Ranke’s view that the Reformation was a German national revolution; however, he argued that this revolution was not a religious revolution led by the ruling elites, but was instead a social revolution led by the peasant masses.

Frederick shared these sentiments. When Luther was summoned to Rome by Pope Leo he was able to refuse because Frederick was firmly behind him and was arguing that any case against Luther should be heard on German soil. Even when the Key question Why was Frederick so determined to support Luther? Luther’s Revolt | 37 bull Exsurge Domine was issued against Luther, Frederick refused to obey it. He claimed that it carried no weight until Luther had been given an opportunity to answer the charges against him in person and in Germany.

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Access to History. Luther and the German Reformation 1517-55 3ed by Keith Randell; Russel Tarr;


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