By Whitaker, Jerry C
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Throughout the history of transformer development, the goal of the design engineer has been to increase permeability, saturation, and resistivity, while decreasing hysteresis losses. A variety of core materials, including silicon iron in various forms, have been used. 9) Where: E = efficiency in percent Pout = transformer power output in watts Pin = transformer power input in watts Losses in a transformer are the result of copper losses in the windings and core losses. The copper losses vary with the square of the current; the core losses vary with the input voltage magnitude and frequency.
The ratio of a material's permeability to the permeability of free space, called relative permeability, is often used . The actual permeability, which has units of webers per ampere-turn-meter, is found by multiplying the permeability of free space by the relative permeability. The overall ability of a core to carry flux also depends on its size and shape, and its cross-sectional area. This is described by permeance. 12) Where: P = permeance µ = permeability of the material A = the cross-sectional area of the core l = the mean length of the flux path in the core This equation assumes uniform flux distribution in the core and constant permeability inside the core.
If the machine is to operate at 60 Hz, then the rotor needs to rotate at 1800 rpm. In general, a p-pole machine operating at 60 Hz has a rotor speed of 3600/(p/2) rpm. That is, the lower the number of poles, the higher the rotor speed must be. In practice, the number of poles is dictated by the mechanical system (the prime mover) that drives the rotor. Steam turbines operate best at a high speed; thus, two- or four-pole machines are suitable. Machines driven by hydro turbines usually have more poles and operate at lower speeds.
AC power systems by Whitaker, Jerry C