By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass similar to cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to invaluable compounds has attracted around the globe curiosity for construction sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this scorching learn region has been summarized good within the common advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to familiarize yourself with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding creation of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many optimum yields ever pronounced. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that's markedly diversified from pronounced catalytic platforms that require robust acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been constructed. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis allows the construction of N-acetylated monomers in stable yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic structures established during this thesis are precise within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic reviews in response to characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts throughout the reactions. the implications may be worthwhile for readers to layout and boost new catalysts and response systems.
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Extra info for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
Nakajima K, Hara M (2012) Amorphous carbon with SO3H groups as a solid Brønsted acid catalyst. ACS Catal 2(7):1296–1304 137. Hara M, Yamaguchi D (2009) Method of hydrolyzing polysaccharide and stirring apparatus therefor. WO Patent 2009099218 138. Onda A, Ochi T, Yanagisawa K (2008) Selective hydrolysis of cellulose into glucose over solid acid catalysts. Green Chem 10(10):1033–1037 139. Onda A, Ochi T, Yanagisawa K (2009) Hydrolysis of cellulose selectively into glucose over sulfonated activated-carbon catalyst under hydrothermal conditions.
Hence, the production of GlcNAc from chitin with retention of N-acetyl group is favorable. , endo- and exochitinase, depolymerize crystalline chitin to GlcNAc in a high yield of 77 % . Although enzymes work under ambient conditions at 290 K, it takes 10 days to complete the reaction. Osada et al. drastically reduced the reaction time to 24 h by the supercritical water and converge milling pretreatment of the substrate as described in Sect. 1 . The resulting product was chitobiose, a dimer of GlcNAc, in 93 % yield due to the use of only endochitinase.
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A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering by Mizuho Yabushita