By Jeremy Bernstein
From molecules to stars, a lot of the cosmic canvas could be painted in brushstrokes of basic colour: the protons, neutrons, and electrons we all know so good. yet for meticulous element, we need to dip into unique hues—leptons, mesons, hadrons, quarks. Bringing particle physics to existence as few authors can, Jeremy Bernstein right here unveils nature in all its subatomic splendor.
during this swish account, Bernstein publications us via high-energy physics from the early 20th century to the current, together with such highlights because the newly came across Higgs boson. starting with Ernest Rutherford’s 1911 rationalization of the nucleus, a version of atomic constitution emerged that sufficed until eventually the Nineteen Thirties, while new debris started to be theorized and experimentally proven. within the postwar interval, the subatomic international exploded in a blaze of unforeseen findings resulting in the speculation of the quark, in all its unusual and charmed diversifications. An eyewitness to advancements at Harvard collage and the Institute for complex research in Princeton, Bernstein laces his tale with piquant anecdotes of such luminaries as Wolfgang Pauli, Murray Gell-Mann, and Sheldon Glashow.
Surveying the dizzying panorama of up to date physics, Bernstein continues to be positive approximately our skill to realize the secrets and techniques of the cosmos—even as its mysteries deepen. We now comprehend that over 80 percentage of the universe comprises topic we've got by no means pointed out or detected. A Palette of Particles attracts readers into the thrill of a box the place the extra we find, the fewer we appear to know.
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Extra resources for A Palette of Particles
These tests included operation at full power or greater, and for full lifetime duration or greater. Nuclear systems will likewise need to be validated for reliable operation at full power and for mission lifetime. , missions using nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) to the outer solar system—require continuous operation without maintenance or repair for periods as long as 10 to 20 years. No high-power-density reactor has, however, ever been operated on Earth, without maintenance shutdowns, for any period longer than one order of magnitude or more below such a duration.
R. V. , 2004. 9. , 1999, pp. 11–12. 10. R. V. , 2004, p. 49. 11. J. Hart, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter High Capability Instrument Feasibility Study, Aerospace Report No. , 2004. 12. , 2004, p. 22. 13. , 2005. 14. , 2001. 15. , 2003. 16. , 2003. 17. , 2003, pp. 10–11 and 85. 18. , 2003, pp. 202–205. 19. , 2003, p. 205. 20. Letter from Edward J. Weiler, Associate Administrator of Space Science, to Lennard Fisk, Chair of the Space Studies Board, October 14, 2003. 21. , 2003, pp. 176–177 and 189. 22. , 2004.
To function most efficiently in the vacuum of space—will need to be modified to function efficiently in an atmosphere. Thus, surface power systems are, in practice, likely to be very different from shipboard reactors. 25 26 PRIORITIES IN SPACE SCIENCE ENABLED BY NUCLEAR POWER AND PROPULSION Testing and Reliability Nuclear reactor power and propulsion systems for human exploration missions must be qualified to a much higher level of reliability than power and propulsion systems that are intended for use by robotic missions.
A Palette of Particles by Jeremy Bernstein