By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This instruction manual covers the refrigeration apparatus and platforms for functions except human convenience. This e-book contains info on cooling, freezing, and storing nutrients; commercial functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the training engineer, this quantity can also be worthwhile for somebody all for cooling and garage of nutrients items. This version contains new chapters. bankruptcy three, Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration platforms, describes the historical past of this "natural refrigerant" and why it's the topic of renewed curiosity this present day. The bankruptcy comprises dialogue and diagrams on CO2 refrigerant purposes, approach layout, apparatus, safeguard, lubricants, commissioning, operation, and upkeep. bankruptcy 50, Terminology of Refrigeration, lists a few of the universal phrases utilized in commercial refrigeration structures, fairly platforms utilizing ammonia because the refrigerant.
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Additional info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition)
START-UP AND OPERATION All control devices should be checked before start-up. If mechanical pumps are used, the direction of operation must be correct. System evacuation and charging procedures are similar to those for other systems. The system must be operating under normal conditions to determine the total required refrigerant charge. Liquid height is established by liquid level indicators in the low-pressure receivers. Calibrated, manually operated regulators should be set for the design conditions and adjusted for better performance when necessary.
Installed cost may be greater, particularly for small systems or those with fewer than three evaporators. Operation of the pumping unit requires added expenses that are offset by the increased efficiency of the overall system. Pumping units may require maintenance. Pumps sometimes have cavitation problems caused by low available net positive suction pressure. Advantages and Disadvantages The main advantages of liquid overfeed systems are high system efficiency and reduced operating expenses. These systems have lower energy cost and fewer operating hours because Generally, the more evaporators used, the more favorable the initial costs for liquid overfeed compared to a gravity recirculated or flooded system (Scotland 1970).
1963. Conditions of cavitation in liquid pumps for refrigerant circulation. Pmgres Rebigeration Science Technology1:497. Lorentzen, G . 1965. How to design piping for liquid recirculation. Heating, Piping & Air Conditioning(June): 139. Lorentzen, G. 1966. On the dimensioning of liquid separators for refrigeration systems. Kaltetechnik 18:89. Lorentzen, G. 1968. Evaporator design and liquid feed regulation. Journal of Refrigeration(November-December): 160. Lorentzen, G. and R. Gronnerud. 1967. On the design of recirculation type evaporators.
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers