By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE instruction manual - basics covers uncomplicated ideas and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with learn backed by means of ASHRAE and others, this quantity comprises 39 chapters masking normal engineering info, simple fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and logos, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were additional to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the earth.
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In lots of climates constructions are not able to supply convenience stipulations for year-round occupancy with out the advantage of a heating method, and so much HVAC engineers will frequently be concerned with concerns in regards to the layout, deploy and function of such platforms. moreover, in temperate climates, heating of structures debts for a wide slice of annual carbon emissions.
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Additional resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
As discussed, fluid velocities of the turbulent profile near the wall must drop to zero more rapidly than those of the laminar profile, so shear stress and friction are much greater in turbulent flow. Fully developed conduit flow may be characterized by the pipe factor, which is the ratio of average to maximum (centerline) velocity. Viscous velocity profiles result in pipe factors Fig. 4 Velocity Profiles of Flow in Pipes Fig. 4 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals LIVE GRAPH Click here to view Fig.
For external flow over a body, fluid velocity varies from zero at the wall to a maximum at distance G from the wall. Boundary layers are generally laminar near the start of their formation but may become turbulent downstream. A significant boundary-layer occurrence exists in a pipeline or conduit following a well-rounded entrance (Figure 6). Layers grow from the walls until they meet at the center of the pipe. Near the start of the straight conduit, the layer is very thin and most likely laminar, so the uniform velocity core outside has a velocity only slightly greater than the average velocity.
W. 1977. Friction-factor equation spans all fluid flow regimes. Chemical Engineering 84(24):91-92. G. J. Drobitch. 1966. An experimental study of nonisothermal flow in a vertical circular tube. ASHRAE Transactions 72(4):5. W. 2004. An experimentally validated model for two-phase sudden contraction pressure drop in microchannel tube header. Heat Transfer Engineering 25(3):69-77. L. W. M. Jordan. 1956. Resistance coefficients for accelerated and decelerated flows through smooth tubes and orifices.
2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers